Côte d'Ivoire et Afrique occidentale
Talon-Pékin : un pacte faustien au service du pouvoir béninois
patrice-talon-chine-cnpc

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Patrice Talon vient de lier un peu plus l’avenir du Bénin à la Chine en confiant la construction du futur oléoduc Niger-Bénin au groupe chinois CNPC. Un nouvel accord qui étend encore davantage l’emprise de l’Empire du Milieu sur le pays, renforçant du même coup le régime autoritaire de son président.  

Le 6 août, la West African Oil Pipeline Bénin Co (Wapco Bénin) et la Compagnie nationale pétrolière chinoise (CNPC) ont signé un accord historique actant la construction d’un réseau de pipeline entre le Niger et le Bénin. Le futur oléoduc de 1 980 km partira du site d’extraction nigérien d’Agadem, d’où il acheminera le pétrole brut jusqu’au port béninois de Sèmé-Podji, près de Cotonou. Selon la CNPC, le coût total d’investissement s’élèverait à 2,25 milliards de dollars pour un volume d’exportation d’au moins 90 000 barils par jour d’ici janvier 2022. Il s’agit là du projet le plus important de la compagnie chinoise en Afrique, qui possède une autre raffinerie dans le sud du Niger, à Zinder (1 million de tonnes de pétrole par an). D’ici 2020, la CNPC vise ainsi une production de plus de 2 millions de barils par jour sur le continent africain. Et pour obtenir le passage de ce couloir d’or noir à travers le Bénin, les autorités chinoises se sont appuyées sur le très sinophile Patrice Talon, à la tête du pays depuis 2016.

Début septembre 2018, le chef de l’État s’était déjà rendu à Pékin pour rencontrer son homologue Xi Jingping et assister au 7e Forum sur la coopération sino-africaine. Sa venue avait déjà débouché sur un premier contrat avec la société chinoise Poly Technologies inc. pour la construction d’une nouvelle caserne militaire à Ahouanouzoun, au nord de Cotonou. Mais pour décrocher les faveurs de la CNPC, Patrice Talon dû batailler ferme avec le Tchad, qui lorgnait également sur ce juteux contrat. Le président béninois a donc mis la pression sur son gouvernement pour faire approuver la proposition chinoise dans les plus brefs délais par son ministre des Mines, Samoi Séidou. Une méthode autoritaire qui est devenue une habitude pour le président béninois, pourtant élu en 2016 sur des promesses de transparence et de respect des institutions démocratiques. Une direction autoritaire de l’État qui menace l’indépendance économique du pays. Sous prétexte de vouloir développer l’économie nationale, Patrice Talon permet en effet à la Chine d’accroître son emprise sur le Bénin. L’occasion aussi d’asseoir sa propre toute-puissance politique à la tête de la nation de 12 millions d’habitants, bien aidé par le savoir-faire des autorités chinoises en la matière. Et qu’importe s’il lui faut, pour cela, bafouer la tradition de pluralité politique et liberté d’expression si chères aux Béninois depuis la démocratisation du pays en 1990…

 

La revanche sans partage de Patrice Talon

Ancien homme d’affaires ayant fait fortune dans le coton, Patrice Talon a pourtant lui-même subi les conséquences d’une telle dérive autocratique. En 2012, l’ex-roi du coton avait été forcé à l’exil par les services de l’ex-président Boni Yayi, dont il a pourtant financé les campagnes présidentielles de 2006 et de 2011. Une fois élu un an après son retour en 2015, le nouveau chef de l’État a entamé une série de réformes pour mettre de l’ordre dans le pays, en particulier dans le service public. Mais le discours énergique et réformiste a rapidement servi de prétexte pour un raidissement de l’appareil de répression et une atteinte aux droits et aux libertés de la société civile. En juillet 2018, Patrice Talon a notamment orchestré la création de la Cour de répression des infractions économiques et du terrorisme (CRIET), qu’il utilise comme instrument de frappe contre l’opposition. En octobre 2018, la CRIET fraîchement installée condamnait déjà Sébastien Ajavon, principale figure de l’opposition, à 20 ans de prison pour trafic de cocaïne. Une décision rapidement invalidée par la Cour africaine des droits de l’Homme, mais qui a poussé l’opposant à s’exiler en France, où il a obtenu le statut de réfugié politique.

Faute de réussir à faire adopter par le Parlement l’allongement du mandat présidentiel à sept ans, Patrice Talon a néanmoins fait passer un nouveau code électoral peu avant les élections législatives du 28 avril 2019. Draconiennes, les nouvelles règles en vigueur ont écarté du suffrage tous les partis de l’opposition, absente pour la première fois depuis 1991. Frappé par un taux d’abstention historiquement élevé (72,9 %), le scrutin a ensuite été marqué par des manifestations massives réprimées dans le sang. Boni Yayi, tenu pour responsable de la révolte citoyenne, a d’ailleurs été placé en résidence surveillée suite aux émeutes, avant de fuir le pays pour pouvoir accéder à des soins. Lionel Zinzou, autre rival politique de l’actuel président, s’est lui aussi évaporé des frontières béninoises suite au lancement d’une enquête à son sujet par la CRIET. Avec 100 % de députés désormais acquis à sa cause, une opposition toujours illégitime et une future caserne militaire ultra-puissante équipée et formée par la Chine, Patrice Talon prépare-t-il les conditions d’une dictature qui ne dit pas son nom ? C’est ce que redoutent plusieurs ONG comme Amnesty International, qui a dénoncé la situation « inquiétante » du pays suite à la répression postélectorale…

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