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Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /var/www/virtual/tribuneouest.com/htdocs/wp-content/plugins/dpArticleShare/functions.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /var/www/virtual/tribuneouest.com/htdocs/wp-content/plugins/dpArticleShare/functions.php on line 41

Deprecated: Function get_magic_quotes_gpc() is deprecated in /var/www/virtual/tribuneouest.com/htdocs/wp-content/plugins/dpArticleShare/functions.php on line 41

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Côte d'Ivoire et Afrique occidentale
Côte d’Ivoire, Bénin, Ghana : ces démocraties africaines qui fonctionnent

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Sur un continent où, depuis 1960, seule une vingtaine de chefs d’Etat sur 200 a quitté le pouvoir démocratiquement, les pays où l’alternance politique fonctionne font encore figure d’exception. Tour d’horizon de ces Etats africains où les présidents sortants savent passer le flambeau du pouvoir avec élégance.

 

Inoxydables. Dans nombre de pays africains, les présidents semblent abonnés au pouvoir à vie. Ainsi, sur les dix chefs d’Etat affichant le plus long règne au monde, pas moins de neuf sont issus du continent. A commencer par Teodoro Obiang Nguema, qui est fermement installé à la tête de la Guinée équatoriale depuis 39 ans. Son voisin camerounais, Paul Biya, préside quant à lui aux destinées de son pays depuis 35 ans. Sur la troisième marche de ce peu enviable podium se dresse l’Ougandais Yoweri Museveni, au pouvoir depuis 31 ans.

Ces mandats à répétition ne sont pas sans conséquences sur les pays africains concernés, provoquant une usure du pouvoir et favorisant une mauvaise gouvernance. Ces présidences ad vitam aeternam entravent les progrès démocratiques de leurs pays et empêchent d’éventuels successeurs d’émerger. Cependant, tous les pays africains ne sont pas abonnés à des chefs d’Etat indéboulonnables. Plusieurs d’entre eux mettent en effet un point d’honneur à ce que l’alternance soit respectée ou, à tout le moins, à ce que le pouvoir change de main.

En Afrique francophone, le Bénin et la Côte d’Ivoire montrent la voie

 

C’est notamment le cas, éloquent, du Bénin, qui se distingue depuis l’adoption en 1990 d’une nouvelle Constitution par une alternance régulière au sommet de l’Etat. En témoigne la victoire, en mars 2016, de l’homme d’affaires soutenu par l’opposition, Patrice Talon, sur le Premier ministre sortant, Lionel Zinsou, soutenu quant à lui par le président alors en exercice, Yayi Boni. Une victoire reconnue par le perdant, qui ouvrit la quatrième alternance démocratique béninoise depuis l’ouverture démocratique du pays.

Une alternance qui ne doit rien au hasard. En effet, la Constitution béninoise dispose, à son article 42, « qu’en aucun cas, nul ne peut exercer plus de deux mandats présidentiels ». Depuis 1990, cette règle n’a jamais été modifiée, la vigilance de la société civile béninoise et de la Cour constitutionnelle modérant les éventuelles velléités présidentielles visant à modifier la Constitution afin de rester au pouvoir.

Tournant le dos à un houleux passé, la Côte d’ivoire s’engage aussi résolument dans la voie de l’alternance démocratique. A la suite de sa défaite à l’élection présidentielle de 2011 contre Alassane Ouattara, Laurent Gbagbo avait refusé de quitter le pouvoir, plongeant le pays dans le chaos. Plusieurs centaines de personnes avaient péri au cours des violences consécutives au blocage, et ce alors que l’ensemble de la communauté internationale reconnaissait la victoire de M. Ouattara.

Sept ans plus tard, et alors qu’Alassane Ouattara effectue son second mandat, force est de constater que la Côte d’Ivoire a retrouvé le chemin d’une normalité démocratique. A tel point que le chef de l’Etat vient de laisser entendre, lors d’une allocution prononcée en juillet dernier, qu’il ne se représenterait pas en 2020, souhaitant organiser le « transfert du pouvoir à une nouvelle génération », selon ses propres mots.

En Afrique anglophone, l’exemplarité du Ghana et du Nigeria

 

Les avancées démocratiques ne sont, fort heureusement, pas l’apanage des pays d’Afrique francophone. Au Nigeria, la victoire inattendue de Muhammadu Buhari sur le président sortant, Goodluck Jonathan, au terme de l’élection présidentielle de 2015, a même eu « un gros impact compte tenu de l’intensité électorale en Afrique », estime le spécialiste de l’Afrique Hugo Sada. « Le Nigeria montre qu’il y a une progression démocratique et elle est exemplaire, poursuit l’expert. Cela montre que les élections fonctionnent tant bien que mal » sur le continent.

Au Ghana aussi, après douze ans de parti unique et vingt-trois de régime militaire, la démocratisation de la vie politique est bien en marche. Depuis 35 ans, les présidents successifs se refusent à manipuler leur Constitution afin de rester en place et, quand ils sont battus, abandonnent leur siège avec élégance. Rien d’étonnant, dans un pays où plus de huit citoyens sur dix estiment que la démocratie est préférable à n’importe quelle autre forme de gouvernement, où les élections ne sont pas truquées, où la justice s’exerce en toute indépendance et où aucun prisonnier politique ne croupit dans les geôles du pouvoir.

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