Côte d'Ivoire et Afrique occidentale
L’Afrique dans la course à l’énergie solaire
kits-solaires-afrique-ghana-edf

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L’Afrique, est sans doute le continent le plus ensoleillé, mais aussi celui qui dispose le moins d’infrastructures adéquates pour recueillir cette énergie renouvelable. Cependant, de nombreuses initiatives sont en train de voir le jour, notamment avec l’aide des grands groupes énergétiques français.

L’Afrique est un continent paradoxal. Il renferme des ressources énergétiques inestimables mais sa population, en croissance constante, n’en profite pas forcément. Elle compte pas moins de 15% du nombre d’habitants de la planète (avec une estimation à 2 milliards en 2050, contre 1,2 actuellement), mais ne consomme que 3% de l’énergie mondiale. Et là encore, les paradoxes sont légion, au sein-même du continent : une Afrique du Nord et du Sud qui ne représentent que le tiers du nombre d’Africains, mais 80% de la consommation d’énergie totale. Plus alarmant, l’état de l’Afrique sub-saharienne et ses 500 millions d’habitants privés d’accès à l’électricité et accusant ainsi un net retard en matière d’utilisation d’énergies renouvelables au quotidien. Tandis qu’en Afrique de l’Ouest, seulement 45% de la population vit dans des villes de plus de 5 000 habitants. « Dans l’ensemble, les pays africains ont un score très bas pour ce qui est des politiques environnementales favorisant l’accès à l’énergie (…) Jusqu’à 40% d’entre eux sont dans la zone rouge, ce qui veut dire qu’ils ont à peine commencé à prendre des mesures pour accélérer l’accès à l’énergie », explique Vivien Foster, responsable de Banque Mondiale pour l’énergie et les industries extractives.

Le solaire fait sa révolution

Pourtant, les choses semblent évoluer quelque peu. Pour l’heure, en termes d’énergie, l’Afrique utilise principalement le charbon ou l’hydraulique, mais le solaire (en abondance !) commence à poindre. Des centrales solaires sont apparues sur tout le continent ces derniers mois, et même s’il y a encore des difficultés de stockage, cette énergie devient de plus en plus rentable. Grâce à un effondrement du prix des panneaux et une amélioration de leur qualité, une rapidité de mise en place (grâce aux kits solaires domestiques qui se répandent de plus en plus, notamment dans les campagnes, à hauteur de 1,77 million vendus en 2017) et une irradiation supérieure à 2 000 kWh/m2, c’est tout le continent qui semble porté par le solaire.

C’est le cas du Maroc avec Masdar, un vaste projet de raccordement annoncé en janvier dernier de plus de 1 000 villages en énergie solaire, alimentant ainsi quelques 20 000 foyers en électricité. Une initiative lancée en 2015 par Aziz Rabbah, ministre de l’Energie, des Mines et du Développement durable et qui voit enfin le jour, grâce à une coopération entre le Maroc et les Emirats arabes unis.

Le Sénégal n’est pas en reste avec l’inauguration d’une quatrième centrale solaire d’une capacité de 30 mégawatts, à Mérina Ndakhar, non loin de Dakar, le 16 janvier 2018. Un projet qui a nécessité pas moins de 28 milliards de francs CFA. Construite en moins de dix mois, cette centrale compte 92 000 panneaux photovoltaïques et pourra alimenter plus de 200 000 personnes. Elle permettra également de réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de la région. Une cinquième centrale est prévue à Kahone prochainement. Objectif : un mix énergétique comportant 30% d’énergies renouvelables d’ici 2020.

Une optique également revendiquée par le Burkina Faso qui envisage de produire 30% de son électricité via le solaire d’ici 2030. Et le pays s’en donne les moyens, puisqu’il a inauguré en novembre 2017, en présence d’Emmanuel Macron, la plus grande centrale solaire de toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest, à Zagtouli, à une vingtaine de kilomètres de Ouagadougou. Les chiffres sont impressionnants : 129 600 panneaux de 260 watts, soit 33 mégawatts d’énergie produite. Une centrale cofinancée par l’Agence française de développement, à hauteur de 22,5 millions d’euros et par l’Union européenne (pour 25 millions d’euros). Elle permettra au Burkina Faso, outre un accès à l’électricité à des populations qui en sont privées, la création d’emplois et une importation réduite de l’électricité à ses pays voisins. Deux autres centrales sont d’ailleurs prévues dans les années à venir.

Des investissements dans l’énergie solaire

Qui dit développement du solaire en Afrique, dit aussi investissements de la part des grands groupes d’énergie, notamment français. Engie, par exemple, a ainsi signé en octobre 2017, un accord afin de racheter la société Fenix International, spécialisée dans l’installation de structures solaires pour des particuliers en Ouganda et en Zambie, soit plus de 140 000 clients à ce jour, contre plusieurs millions potentiels. Une acquisition qui permettra au groupe français d’« accélérer le déploiement des installations solaires domestiques auprès d’une grande partie de la population africaine n’ayant pas encore accès à l’électricité » selon Bruno Bensasson, directeur général d’Engie Afrique.

De son côté, EDF a décidé de miser sur la Côte d’Ivoire en 2016 avec la collaboration de la société californienne Off Grid Electric, principalement dans la région de Soubré, à l’Ouest du pays. L’idée étant de vendre des kits solaires domestiques (panneaux, lampes, équipements basse consommation), intitulés Zola, à quelques 1,5 million de personnes. Les kits sont mis en location aux clients à hauteur de 7 euros par mois et au bout de trois ans, ils leur appartiennent. De quoi permettre à une population principalement rurale qui n’a pas accès à l’électricité, de pouvoir le faire à un prix modéré. 50 000 personnes en bénéficient déjà.

Le partenariat entre EDF et Off Grid Electric s’est également développé au Ghana en janvier 2018, avec une offre similaire à celle ivoirienne, porteuse de création d’emplois. Un choix que le spécialiste local de l’énergie solaire hors réseau, PEG Africa, a décidé de prendre à son compte avec une levée de fonds de 13,5 millions de dollars en octobre 2017, afin de fournir des kits solaires d’autoconsommation à 500 000 consommateurs ivoiriens et ghanéens, avec un mécanisme de paiement sans risque tant pour les ménages que pour la société, « pays as you go », par le biais de petites sommes étalées sur 12 mois.

Le groupe EDF mise par ailleurs sur les impulsions locales, notamment via son prix EDF Pulse Africa. Le premier prix de cette édition a permis à Majik Water de participer au développement énergétique du continent africain. Cette start-up s’est distinguée en développant des générateurs d’eau atmosphériques alimentés par des panneaux solaires, afin de transformer l’humidité de l’air en eau. Un projet qui vit d’une certitude indéfectible : l’énergie solaire n’est pas prête de s’étioler en Afrique, bien au contraire.

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