Côte d'Ivoire et Afrique occidentale
Bauxite : l’appétit chinois menace la Guinée
Guinée

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Le 6 septembre dernier, Pékin et Conakry ont signé un contrat de 20 milliards de dollars pour permettre aux groupes chinois d’exploiter encore un peu plus la bauxite guinéenne. Tandis que les populations redoutent un désastre écologique, elles peinent à voir les retombées positives, pour elles, de ce pillage en règle de leur sous-sol.

Derrière toute grande ambition économique se cache rarement un fort tropisme pour le développement durable — a fortiori lorsqu’elle s’étend sur un continent entier et se base sur l’exploitation des ressources naturelles. La Chine nous le rappelle tous les ans un peu plus. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, Pékin a jeté son dévolu sur l’Afrique, où des milliers d’entreprises chinoises sont désormais installées pour, officiellement, faire naître des partenariats et accompagner certains pays dans leur développement. Officieusement, l’objectif est moins avouable : envahir économiquement l’Afrique pour son bénéfice personnel. Un peu à la manière des colonisateurs européens à d’autres époques.

Modèle de développement inconséquent

« En Afrique, la Chine fait exactement ce que faisaient les puissances coloniales. Ils veulent les matières premières pour alimenter leur croissance économique, ils prennent les ressources naturelles et laissent les populations encore plus pauvres » avait tenté d’alarmer la primatologue britannique Jane Goodall en 2014. Nuance de taille : « les Chinois sont plus nombreux et les technologies ont progressé. C’est un désastre » déclarait-elle en marge d’une conférence à l’université Wits de Johannesburg. Le constat est alarmant. Pourtant, selon elle, « chacun d’entre nous peut faire une différence […] si vous avez des milliers, un million ou plusieurs millions de gens qui font le bon choix, en pensant aux conséquences de leur comportement, alors vous allez voir un grand changement. »

Trois ans plus tard, difficile de nier que le changement se fait toujours attendre. Précisément parce que les entreprises chinoises sont très loin d’avoir à l’esprit les externalités négatives de leur voracité économique. Qui engendre des dégâts naturels importants et, par conséquent, nécessite de lourds moyens financiers afin de les réparer. « L’un des exemples les plus spectaculaires, d’après Jane Goodall, est le plateau de Loess en Chine », une vaste zone qui « était vouée à devenir le plus grand écosystème détruit dans le monde. » Aujourd’hui, grâce à « la formidable capacité de la nature à se régénérer », la verdure et la vie ont repris leurs droits — moyennant « beaucoup d’argent » cependant.

De quoi remettre en question, en tout cas, le modèle de développement extrêmement inconséquent des entreprises chinoises. Faut-il, pour une poignée de dollars, saccager la nature dans un premier temps, pour compter sur sa « capacité à se régénérer » dans un second temps ? La réponse, évidemment, est non. Mais les entreprises chinoises ne semblent pas l’avoir compris. En Guinée, leurs activités minières, surtout, s’accompagnent de lourdes conséquences pour l’environnement. Afin de satisfaire la demande en matière première des alumineries situées en Chine, alors que Pékin a la mainmise sur le marché mondial de l’aluminium, les groupes présents en Afrique sont priés de les abreuver de manière continue — et croissante — en bauxite, le minerai originel.

Précédent chinois peu engageant

« En 2010, la Chine produisait 16 millions de tonnes d’aluminium. Aujourd’hui, elle est passée à 31 millions de tonnes, soit 53,4 % de la production mondiale » notait l’analyste Magnus Ericsson dans Jeune Afrique l’an dernier. « Logiquement, les volumes de bauxite importés ont donc explosé » et, avec eux, les risques de connaître un jour un désastre écologique, tout à fait envisageable. L’exploitation de la roche se fait par le creusement de puits ; lorsqu’elle est extraite, il arrive que des rejets miniers extrêmement toxiques se retrouvent dans les cours d’eau avoisinants et viennent polluer les récoltes agricoles ou, directement, les populations. En 2016, la Malaisie avait ainsi été contrainte de suspendre l’extraction de la bauxite par les entreprises chinoises pour raisons sanitaires.

Les risques d’atteintes à l’environnement, en Guinée — cinquième producteur mondial de bauxite —, augmentent donc logiquement avec la hausse exponentielle des besoins en minerai des raffineries chinoises. Qui se matérialise par la signature de plus en plus de contrats importants ; le 6 septembre dernier, Pékin et Conakry signaient par exemple un accord-cadre prévoyant l’octroi de ressources minières à des sociétés chinoises en échange de la construction d’infrastructures en Guinée. Coût de la transaction : 20 milliards de dollars. Si les usines, en Chine, sont quasiment assurées de recevoir les quantités de bauxite dont elles ont besoin, le pays africain est à l’inverse dans l’incertitude la plus totale quant à l’émergence desdites infrastructures.

Car il y a un précédent — et il ne plaide pas en faveur des groupes chinois. En avril dernier, à Boké, centre de l’exploitation du minerai en Guinée, des manifestations violentes ont éclaté après qu’un homme à moto se soit fait écraser par un camion transportant de la bauxite. Bilan du soulèvement : un second mort, tué par balle cette fois. La gronde, qui couvait depuis plusieurs mois, tirait son origine de la situation sociale et économique dans laquelle se trouvent les habitants de Boké, qui accusent les compagnies chinoises (China Hongqiao Group, Shandong Weiqiao et Winning Shipping) de piller leurs ressources sans contrepartie. C’était pourtant l’une des promesses du président de la République, Alpha Condé : que les Chinois fassent profiter les citoyens guinéens de leurs moyens apparemment illimités.

 

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